Although Saudi Arabia has still cut a little more than had been agreed at the end of last November, it still appears to be a reluctant leader of the output cuts. Energy Minister Al-Falih warned last week that it cannot " bear the burden of free-riders" forever. Russia, Iraq and the UAE have not delivered what the Saudi officials believe was agreed. Several members, including Saudi ally Kuwait, have called for an extension of the agreement. So far, Saudi Arabia has not endorsed an extension.

The EIA expects US shale producers to boost output by several hundred thousand barrels this year. The Permian Basin area has added 172 rigs since last May. And the productivity of those wells is rising. The EIA projects output from the Permian Basin to increase 79k barrels a day in April, or 3/4 of the overall anticipated increase in US output. Since October, US output has grown 600k barrels a day. That offsets almost half of the cuts that OPEC had negotiated.  Recent comments from the Saudi oil minister suggest officials may have been caught out by how fast US shale output has grown.

The shape of the oil curve is understood to be an important reflection of expectations and key for hedgers and producers.  Think of it like a yield curve. Yield curves are mostly positively sloped. Long-term interest rates are typically above short-term rates. An inversion is often a worrying sign. In commodities, including oil, a positively sloped curve (e.g. oil for delivery in several months is more expensive than the nearby contracts) is called contango. This rewards those with inventories and who can afford not to bring a product to the market today. That is the situation now. The May contract is near $48, and March 2018 contract is a little below $50. The situation that encourages the drawing down of stocks is when the short-term price is above the long-term price. This is called backwardation.  Engineering backwardation likely takes some pressure off prices.

Nevertheless, the important point here is that OPEC seemed to have the upper hand for three months (December 2016 through February 2017). However, shale producers have not been defeated by any means. Instead, they are punching back.  It is a simplification to be sure, but the drama in the oil market can be seen as a battle between Saudi Arabia and US shale producers.

In a larger sense, the rise in oil prices was part of the global reflation story. If our bearish outlook is justified, that reflation story will be challenged. We suspect Europe is more vulnerable than the US. The increasing rig count and output support the economy, while the Fed looks through the price impact by focusing on the core rate of inflation. The rise in headline inflation in the euro area has prompted ideas that the ECB could hike rates (from minus 40 bp to minus 30 bp) late this year or early next year. The drop in oil prices reinforces our ideas the eurozone CPI will peak shortly.

Marc Chandler‚Äč
Global head of currency strategy at BBH
Brown Brothers Harriman